El incumplimiento del deber de control de legalidad del notario frente al despojo jurídico de tierras en zonas de violencia generalizada y su relevancia penal
The legal issue at hand was to determine whether a certain action of a notary public constitutes a crime under criminal law. Specifically, this is the action of a notary public that fails to control the legality of transactions by notarizing public deeds that transfer pieces of real property located in areas of generalized violence under land assignment programs; and who does so failing to comply with the requirements set in the law for the assignment of land and the laws that prevent forced displacement.
To this end, we reviewed in detail the legislation and court precedents that relate to notarial activity in Colombia. We identified the laws and the regulations that govern the assignment of land under agrarian reform policies, the measures set to protect people displaced by violence and the notions and types of forced dispossession and abandonment of land.
To determine whether or not this action constitutes a crime under criminal law, we addressed in the first place the theory of the legal good; we clarified precisely what are the effects caused by the forced dispossession of land and what are the alternative means of control established by private law and Law 1448 of 2011; and we analyzed this specific action of a notary public under the pertinent crime classifications, placing an emphasis on the protected interests and the issues that these entail.